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  1. Background

Salale University is one of the public higher education institutions in Ethiopia that was established in July 2015 G.C by the council of ministers following the demand of the community of North Showa and its surrounding, and in line with the direction of the government as per the proclamation article /No.359/2008. It is located in Oromia region, North Showa, Fitche town at a distance of 114 km from Addis Ababa. Currently, the university is offering about 30 programs clustered in 5 colleges namely: College of Health Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, College of Business and Economics, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, and College of Natural Sciences. The Department of Horticulture, which was established in July 2015 G.C, is one of the academic programs in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resource offering BSc degree in the regular and MSc degree in regular, Weekend programs. The activities of the department unlimited, which is started to deliver common and supportive courses to students requested from various departments of the University, conducting research and providing community services. In all of the aforementioned and other related activities, the contribution of the department is significant at the university and also at national level. In line with the national policy of higher education that focuses on promoting applied (80%) and basic (20%) research in science and technology, the department launched postgraduate programs leading to MSc. in General Horticulture in the academic year of 2020/2021 G.C with streams of Irrigational Horticulture, Horticultural plant Physiology, Vegetable crop production and Management, Plant Biotechnology, Root and Tuber crops, fruit crops.

  • Background and Justification of Ethiopian Agriculture

Ethiopia has an area of 1.22 million square kilometers with great variety of climatic and soil types which can grow crops for home consumption and foreign markets. However, 21,600,000 people (19.78% of the total population of Ethiopia of 109,224,414 in 2018) were undernourished with the rank of 7th share of global undernourished of 2.5% according to FAOSTAT (2020) accessed on 30/07/2020. Croplands in Ethiopia is 17,540,100 hectares with a global rank of 20th (Ethiopian share of global croplands is 1.0%) of global croplands is 1,697,033,870 hectares. 

Based on the Worldometer elaboration of the latest United Nations data accessed on 30/7/2020, Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa next to Nigeria with a population of more than 115 million at annual growing rate of 2.57%. Whereas the population density in country is 115 per square kilometer; the total land area is 1,000,000 kilometer square. About 21.3% of the population is urban (24,463,423 people in 2020) dwellers. It is also one of the least developed countries in the world; ranked 137th among 189 countries in the United Nations’ Human Development Index. Compared with other sub-Saharan African countries, Ethiopian has been successful in slowing population growth and now has a relatively low fertility rate by African standards, but its population will nevertheless swell to an estimated 191 million people by 2050. More than 40% of the population is currently under the age of 15.

 Ethiopia has registered a gross educational enrollment ratio of 27.55 million in 2015/16 of which 1.32 million (some 4.8%) graduate each year expecting to join the labor force (MOE, 2016). The number of students in various levels of educational establishments is very large, and it is equivalent to, for example, the entire population of Madagascar, of the combined population of Togo, Sierra Leone, Libya and Swaziland. Notwithstanding the continued need to enhance quality of education, this is a great success story of educational expansion. The vast expansion, however, represents massive demand for jobs across all sectors of the economy. Like other low-income countries in Africa, Ethiopia faces the enormous challenges of creating a more inclusive and efficient education systems among rapid population growth.

 Despite Ethiopia’s booming economy, the county’s education system remains undeveloped and plagued by low participation rates and quality problems, which is a situation partially owed to Ethiopia having been poor of economic development for decades. As the World Bank has noted, Ethiopia was “one of the most educationally disadvantaged countries in the world” for much of the 20th century, because of armed conflict, famines, and humanitarian crises.

 The gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate in Ethiopia (with a population of 106,399,924) was 10.25% in 2017, with an increasing change of 7.3% in GDP per capita when compared to that of 2016, which has advanced and positioned the country to become a middle-income country by 2025, after being the second poorest country in the world in 2000 (Moller, 2016). Powered by considerable public infrastructure investment, Ethiopia has witnessed a rapid and stable economic growth, in addition to a decrease in poverty to 30% from 44% in the past decade.

  Roles of Agriculture in Ethiopia’s Economy

Agriculture accounts for 46.3% of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), 83.9% of exports, and 80% of all labor force in the country (Wikipedia, 2020). Ministry of Agriculture (2019), reports that agriculture contributes 27.5 billion dollars of 34.1% to the GDP, employs some 79% of the population, accounting for 79% of foreign earnings, and is the major sources of raw material and capital for investment and market.

 Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Put in perspective, Ethiopia’s key agricultural sector has grown at an annual rate of about 10% over the past decade much faster than population growth. Other important sectors are service and industrial sectors contributing 43% and 15.6%, respectively (The World Fact book, 2016). On agriculture expenditure related metric, Ethiopia has dedicated an annual investment of about 14.7% of all government spending to the agriculture sector since 2003. Ethiopia is among the few African countries that have consistently met both the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) targets of 10% increase in public investment in agriculture by the year 2008 and boosting agricultural production growth by 6% at least by 2015.

 Although agriculture is one of Ethiopia’s most promising resources, the sector has been slowed down by periodic drought, high levels of taxation and poor infrastructure that often make it hard and expensive to get goods to market. Too, overgrazing, deforestation and high population density has led to massive soil degradation leading to low productivity. The above problems have made it hard for the country to feed itself, best exemplified by the dramatic 1984-85 famine. Since then, the country has experienced similar occurrences that expose a sizeable population to humanitarian needs. As things stand, over 3 million Ethiopians need food and other humanitarian assistance annually (SIDA, 2015). However, a critical look at the sector shows a high potential for self-sufficiency in grains and also for the development export especially for livestock, vegetables, fruits and grains.

 Ethiopia has about 51.3 million hectares of arable land. However, just over 20% is currently cultivated, mainly by the smallholders. Over 50% of all smallholder farmers operate on one hectare or less. Smallholder producers, who are about 12 million households, account for about 95% of agricultural GDP. Agricultural production is mainly subsistence, and a large portion of the country’s commodity exports is provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector.

 Ethiopia’s economy is growing with a wide range of opportunities for investment. However, Ethiopia remains an unexploited market and untapped for investors. Out of the total investment projects approved between 1992 and 2012, FDI’s share accounted for about 15.8%, with China, India, Germany, Italy, Sudan, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the UK, Israel, Canada and the US being the major source of FDI. While that was a great progress going with the country’s history, there has only been a slight increase since 2012 both in the total number of projects and capital invested (Ethiopian Investment Commission, 2015). The country’s continued public investments in infrastructure is remarkable as well as its new industrial policy geared towards diversification and transformation of the economy (EUBFE, 2015).

 Ethiopia has competitive advantages in agriculture and agro-processing and sugar owing to the country’s favorable climatic conditions and types of soil suitable for the production of a variety of crops. The conditions are suitable for growing major food crops such as cereals, pulses, and oilseeds. Some of the sectors that also have great potential for investment include organic coffee cultivation, sugar cane, tea and spices, cotton (and textile), a broad range of fruits and vegetables and cut flowers.

 Apart from a population of more than 115 million people currently, Ethiopia as potentially one of Africa’s largest domestic markets; the agricultural sector is equally suitable for the fast-growing export market.  By benefit of being a COMESA member, bringing together 19 countries with a total population of 400 million, Ethiopia also has preferential market access to these countries. The country’s closeness to the Middle East also gives potential market opportunities in addition to qualifying for preferential access to the EU market under the EU’s Everything-But-Arms initiative and to the US markets under the AGOA and the Generalized System of Preference (GSP). Ethiopian products have access to these markets quota and duty-free.

  Contribution of Horticultural Sub-sector in Ethiopia’s Economy

Horticulture is one of the sub sectors of agriculture that received due attention in the second Growth and Transformation Plan (II) of the country. The development of horticulture plays two crucial roles in the Ethiopian economy: earning foreign currency and creating job opportunities. Regarding foreign currency earnings, Ethiopia has managed to greatly transform its horticulture sector within a span of 15 years. Through attracting potential investors, the country has generated close to 300 million USD from export, according to Ethiopia's Horticulture and Agriculture Investment Authority (EHAIA). In earlier times, the sector was characterized by the adoption of traditional farming systems rather than modern agriculture techniques. As a result, its contribution to the country's economic development was insignificant. Following the introduction of modern agricultural technologies and techniques, the sector has been growing and contributing to national export earnings.

 Reliable data from the Authority showed that it has created jobs for over 200,000 citizens, of which 70 percent are females. Mechanized horticulture production has shown an exponential growth in 12 years of time. Currently, there are 136 investments in Ethiopia that are engaged in the export of flowers, fruits, vegetables and herbs. Ethiopia has 84 active flower farms and is the second largest flower producer and exporter in Africa next to Kenya. Thanks to the country’s abundant rainfall, optimum temperatures, conducive altitude and fertile soil, coffee and tea sectors are the major horticultural sectors that Ethiopia has a great potential for their production. Over 60% of Ethiopian coffee is produced as forest coffee, and therefore, the use of fertilizers is usually unnecessary as the falling leaves enrich forest floor. Also, the use of chemicals such as pesticides, fungicides among others is limited since the high genetic diversity in the forest creates a balance between parasites and pests (Ethiopian Coffee Exporters Association, 2016). Consequently, the country’s coffee is mostly organic that makes it highly demanded at international coffee market.

 Ethiopia is Africa’s largest coffee producer, and the fifth world’s producer contributing some of the world’s finest coffees. The country accounts for over 3% of the global coffee market. Coffee is by far the country’s largest foreign exchange earner. In 2013/14, Ethiopia exported 190,734 metric tons earning US$ 749 million. Some of the major destinations of the Ethiopian coffee are Germany, Saudi Arabia, Japan, USA, Belgium and France, importing over 70% of the country’s total coffee exports (Tefera, Abu, 2015).

 While Ethiopia has a potential to grow all types of tea, the country produces only black tea, with a production capacity of 7,000 tons per annum. According to the country’s ministry of industry, the tea industry has been lacking investment (Ethiopia’s Ministry of Industry, 2016). Thus, investment potential exists in large-scale commercial tea production as well as modern tea packing and blending industries.

 About 12,000 hectares of fruit plantation is surveyed in the peasant and state farms. From the total area of fruit plantation, about 70% is cultivated by individual peasant farmers. The total annual volume of fresh fruit production of the state sector agriculture contribution is less than 20%. As to area of vegetable crops, cultivated land of the peasant farmers is not well known. Based on the surveyed per capita consumption and estimated loss between production and consumption, the annual fresh production of assorted vegetable is about 2.86 million tons. From the total volume of horticultural products, 95% is fresh vegetable production; the major vegetable production is from the peasant farmers.

 There is no processing of fruits and vegetables in the peasant sub sector. Production of canned and bottled fruits and vegetables is mainly in the Ministry id Industry (MIO) and Ministry of State Farm (MSF). The main source of horticulture raw materials for the processing plants is the state farms. Assorted vegetables, cut flowers, fruits and triple concentrate tomato paste are the main exportable horticultural commodities. Ethiopia imports a very limited amount of fresh and canned fruits and vegetables. But, there was no import of cut flowers for the last few years (Agonafir, 1991).

  1. RATIONALE OF THE DEPARTMENT

Horticultural industries around the world are growing as a result of global trade in fresh products from temperate countries is expanding with exciting new cultivars offering improved flavor, texture or appearance. New technologies are allowing increased quantities of highly perishable tropical horticultural products to be sold far from where they are grown. Advanced horticultural industries are highly sophisticated operations that may use satellite data to guide their tractors, remote sensing to target inputs, bio-control to manage pests, mechanized harvesting, on-line grading, sophisticated packaging, track-and-trace technologies and consumer science to understand which quality attributes are most desirable.

 At the other end of the scale, small farmers in developing countries including Ethiopia with adequate access to water are finding that devoting at least part of their land to horticulture can increase both their total income, and the frequency of their income, as long as they know who wants to buy their products and how to reach that market. Underlying these advances is an enormous wealth of horticultural knowledge, which is expanding each year and much of which is emerging from the efforts of graduate students around the world.

 Horticultural development in Ethiopia is, particularly, very low due to lack of improved production technologies, inappropriate management practices, pre- and post-harvest losses and insufficient research and extension services. To fill these gaps, it is necessary to develop qualified human power that can be engaged in the processes of technology generation, dissemination and adoption. Hence human capital is one of the key drivers of development in horticulture sector in the country.

 As one of the blessed universities of the country offering better comparative advantages such as appropriate geographical location, suitable environmental conditions, youth dominated and committed academic staffs, etc., Salale University (SlU) is too responsible for the production of adequate horticultural professionals. Oromia region in general and North Shoa zone in particular, where our University is located, has varied agro-ecological zones (highlands accounting for 42%, mid-altitudes 35%, and lowlands 23%) that enable the region to produce all types of horticultural crops (tropical, subtropical and temperate type ones) like in other part of the country. Besides, the government of Ethiopia and the Oromia National Regional State have given due attention for horticultural development. Furthermore, extensive irrigation potential that the zone has are being developed to produce high value cash crops such as fruits, vegetables and flowers for export market as well as for domestic markets if an educated personnel at graduate level will be adequate.

Results of need assessment survey carried out by the Department of Horticulture of our University at different levels of bureaus of agricultural, institutes and NGOs have shown that there is a very high (68.6%) demand for horticultural higher experts to develop all subsectors of horticulture.  Especially, the main stakeholders or organizations where consulted to launch the program, such as Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Oromia Regional Bureaus of Agriculture, Research Institutes, and Woreda level Bureaus of Agriculture showed interest for competent and well skilled horticulture professionals at  under graduate and graduate level. According to the respondents from Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Agricultural Bureau of Oromia, staff positions that have to be filled by horticultural specialist are mostly occupied by staffs from other disciplines for the lack of appropriate horticulture professionals.  

 For suitable environmental conditions available in the country and the higher attention given by the government of Ethiopia, the floriculture industry is expected to expand in the country. This expansion again needs competent well trained staffs at all levels. According to most respondents, Horticulture in BSc and MSc Program at SlU should address general horticulture, with especial emphasize to vegetables, fruits, floriculture and landscaping horticultural subsectors. Thus, specialization into different subsectors such as Olericulture, Pomology, Floriculture and others seems not feasible currently due to low level of horticultural development in the country. Being aware of this fact, the Department of Horticulture of the University has planned those programs to produce adequate number of well trained and qualified personnel in horticultural crop production and management science in regular, extension and summer programs. Increasing the level of horticultural development and its productivity by using improved production technologies, applying appropriate management practices, reducing pre-and post-harvest losses and sufficient research and extension services helps to increase foreign exchange earnings from the sector in particular and to attain food and nutrition security of the nation at large. The program is, thus, developed in response to the country’s need to increase horticultural crop production and productivity, and thereby to improve the livelihood of people in particular and to attain food security, as well as, to boost foreign exchange of the country at large. The program seeks to produce competent professionals who will be playing a key role in the processes of technology generation, dissemination and adoption which eventually results in the increase of horticultural crops production and productivity of the country. Hence, the program predicts to produce such competent professionals who are equipped with both academic and practical knowledge and skills in managing all aspects of the horticultural crop production and management, as well as, undertaking various research and extension activities which can contribute for the region’s and the country’s food security and developmental endeavors.

 As horticultural professionals, BSc and MSc graduates of SlU will also serve as consultant, they will advise commercial businesses and public sector organizations on issues relating to the development and maintenance of their horticultural crops, parklands and other public spaces such as gardens. In doing so, their clients may include farmers, commercial growers, nurseries, botanical gardens and relaxation organizations. As well as offering technical advice, they may consult their clients on the development of products and resources and on finding effective solutions to problems.

  1. VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT
    • Vision

 The Department of Horticulture aspires to be a Centre of Excellence in Horticultural Art and Science among the Higher Educational Institutions in the country; and the first choice of applicants seeking professional training in Horticulture at the postgraduate level. The Department aspires to be the most pursued after in public-private partnerships through optimizing the potentials of the diverse spheres of Horticulture in the East African sub-region (food and nutritional security, health and recreation, mitigation of climate change and environmental beautification).

  • Mission

Working in partnership with other stakeholders, the Department of Horticulture will increase employability of its graduates by imparting knowledge and cutting-edge market-driven skills.

  • Department Objectives
    • General objective
  • To improve the community perception of horticulture as a profession to be desired.
    • Specific objectives
  • To produce proficient graduates who are employable and able to create jobs in all specializations of Horticulture: Pomology (Fruit Science), Olericulture (Vegetable Science), Ornamental Horticulture (floriculture) and landscape design and management.
  • To generate demand-driven adoptable technologies that create more jobs, address farmers’ problems add value to horticultural produce and enhance the development of the horticultural industry.
  • To expand the frontiers of knowledge in cross-border applications of horticulture in food, nutrition and health, climate change, sports and environmental beautification.
  1. GRADUATE PROFILE

The graduates of this Department will be qualified horticultural professionals who are well equipped with scientific knowledge and practical skills that would enable them to:

  • Identify, analyze and develop holistic solutions to problems related to horticultural crop production and protection;
  • Generate, demonstrate and promote valuable technologies related to horticultural crop improvement, production and protection;
  • Organize and leading the production and marketing of horticultural enterprises of different size and character;
  • Consult policy makers in formulating appropriate and updated horticultural issues and policies;
  • Consult private horticultural entrepreneurs in relation to production, protection and marketing of horticultural crops; and organize and lead their own horticultural enterprises;
  • Play leading role in the process of enhancing horticultural productivity and ensuring national food and nutrition security;
  • Take part in teaching and training activities at various levels in the field of horticulture; and
  • Be competent candidates in further national and international training opportunities at large.
  1. DEPARTMENT STRUCTURE, FACILITIES AND STAFF
    • Department Structure

The curriculum is designed for Four years leading to BSc degree and for two years leading to MSc degree in Horticulture upon fulfilling all the requirements. The training comprises of:

  • Various professional and basic courses, laboratory exercises and field visits to different institutions and agro ecologies;
  • Seminar prepared and presented by each student on specific topic related to horticultural agronomy, horticultural breeding, protection and soil fertility management under the supervision of professors in the department;
  • Senior research project where students work on selected problems on horticultural agronomy, horticultural breeding and protection and soil fertility management. The project includes research proposal writing based on problem identification procedures, research execution, data generation, analysis and interpretation followed by a scientific report writing and presentation.
  • Facilities

Salale University in general and Department of Horticulture in particular has progressively strengthening facilities that improve the teaching – learning processes such as research centers and laboratory. Accordingly, Ula-Umo nursery, Previous World Vision site at Hidhabu Abote and Anno-Qarre Integrated Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center, respectively, are already established. The Department also works in close collaboration with Departments of plant Sciences, Biology and Chemistry within the University; as well as Fiche Agricultural Research Centre, Fiche Biodiversity Center, Holeta Agricultural Research Center (HARC), Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center (DZARC) and Ethiopia Public Health Institution since have already signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). Moreover, the program will create strong functional linkages with other universities, research institutes and development partners nationally and internationally. The collaboration will include joint Field trip journey both for BSc and MSc Students, thesis research supervision, sharing facilities and resources, and participating in course offerings and defense examinations. In addition, the university provides necessary facilities and services like under graduate and self-contained graduate library, laboratory and field facilities to undertake the research; internet access, etc. At present there are 457 Books (in hard copies), 273 Books (in soft copies), 300 BSc and 293 MSc Thesis works (in soft copies) and thousands of relevant journal articles (in soft copies). Students who will join SlU will also be further privilege to the following links (Hinari, AGORA, OARE, ARDI and/or GOALI programs) to access materials for teaching and research.

  1. Students: Undergraduate and Postgraduate

Currently, there are 45students (regular) in the undergraduate program and 10 students (weekends) in the postgraduate program.

  1. Available Courses: BSc and MSc

Biometry and Software Applications, Advanced Plant Physiology, Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding, Advanced Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, Irrigation Agronomy, Floriculture & Landscape Design , Integrated Pest Management of Horticultural Crops (E), Horticultural Seed Science and Technology (E), Scientific Writing and Communication, Recent Advances in Horticulture,  Horticultural Crops Propagation and Nursery Management , Advanced Vegetable Crops Production and Management , Advanced Fruit Crops Production and Management , Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Production and Processing, Coffee Production and Processing (E), Advanced Postharvest Physiology and Handling of Horticultural Crops, Urban Horticulture (E) , Entrepreneurship, Agribusiness and Value Chain Development (E), Graduate Seminar on Current Topics in Horticulture,  MSc Thesis.

  1. Admission Requirements

Undergraduate: In order to be admitted to the Undergraduate Program of the Department of Horticulture, a candidate must:

  1. Have successfully completed freshman program (First year courses); as per the admission rules and regulations of the university and ministry of Science and Higher Education or
  2. Have diploma in Agricultural Science or other related disciplines from any accredited higher learning institutions.

Postgraduate: The applicant must have completed a Bachelor of Science degree in Horticulture, Crop Sciences, Plant Sciences, Plant Science and Dryland Agriculture, General Agriculture, Biology, Ecology, and related fields from a recognized higher learning institution with cumulative G.P.A. of at least 2.00. Also, the applicant shall meet other admission requirements of the School/College of Graduate Studies (S/CGS) of SlU.

  1. Applicants admitted to the program from horticulture related fields may be required to take certain postgraduate and/or undergraduate courses, which could be determined by the Department Graduate Council. Courses that the student may be advised (or obliged) to take may include compensatory/bridging, elective, auditable. Thus, they would audit in such conditions.
  2. A candidate submits a testimony of financial support.
  3. Applicants who satisfy all the above requirements will be required to sit & must pass written entrance examination to be administered by the DC. The candidate should pass (> 50% marks) in each of the examinations.
  4. The minimum intake of a MSc program (number of students to be enrolled per academic year) shall be ten students. However, the optimum (minimum and maximum) number of students in the graduate program shall be determined by the College Council (CC) taking into consideration the number of staffs, availability of required materials, availability of space and demand for training.
  5. Moreover, priorities in admission may be granted to government sponsors as per the pressing need of the government.
  6. List of staffs and their profile

Academic Staff

SN

Name

Academic Rank

Qualification

Area of specialization

1

Dr. Hailu Gebru

Ass. Professor

PhD

Horticulture

2

Dr. Selamawit Getachew

Ass. Professor

PhD

Horticulture

3

Mesfin Nigussie

Ass. Professor

MSc

Agronomy & Horticulture

4

Belay Andarge

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

5

Ebisa Dufera

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

6

Moera Demissie

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

7

Muhajir Kedir

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

8

Mekuria Bereded

Lecturer

MSc

Seed Science and Technology

9

Samuel Wondimu

Lecturer

MSc

Crop Protection

10

Felka Mulat

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

11

Bekele  Azmaraw

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

12

Ayehu Fekadu

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

13

Dagne Kafani

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

14

Negera  Nurgi

Lecturer

MSc

 Horticulture

15

Muluken Habtamu

Graduate Asst.

BSc

Horticulture

16

Daniel Wondimu

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture)

17

Abinet Terefa

Lecturer

MSc

 Food Science and Nutrition

18

Gizachew Merga

Lecturer

MSc

 Food Science and Nutrition

19

Shelema Nugusu

Lecturer

MSc

Post-Harvest Management

20  

Weldemariam Seifu

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

21  

Minda Shiferaw

Lecturer

MSc

 Horticulture

22  

Shimelis  Misganew

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

23 

Abera         Girma

Lecturer

MSc

Horticulture

24  

Tesfaye       Mideksa

Lecturer

MSc

Agronomy

25 

 

Fiseha         Tadesse

Supportive Staff

Lecturer

MSc

 Agronomy

Habtamu Alemu

Technical assit.

BSc

Horticulture

2

Edosa Atinku

Technical assit.

BSc

Horticulture

  1. Contacts

Current Head, Department: Belay Andarge (MSc)

Phone number: +251-933826686

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

College of Agriculture and Natural Resource

2ndfloor Department of Horticulture  

                             

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